In recent years, Russia has improved its position in the Global Innovation Index, which evaluates countries' innovation output across the spectrum of indices (Global Innovation Index, 2017). Russian strengths include a well-established higher education system and an extensive national market, while policy instability and low regulatory standards may continue to hinder national and foreign investment. In the past ten years, the government has supported efforts by universities to strengthen their capacity to conduct research and innovation. This included a funding programme of 29 national Research Universities, making it possible for government study institutes and universities to establish spinoffs, attracting leading Russian scientists, support for innovative university infrastructure, support for and joint high-tech business-college initiatives, and encouraging leading universities to boost their standing in global university rankings.
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