The country has generally enjoyed a healthy trade surplus since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and primary exports include oil, metals, machinery, chemicals, and forestry products, while principal imports include machinery and foods.
Among Russia’s leading trade partners are Germany, the United States, Belarus, Ukraine, and China. The Russian manufacturing sector recorded strengthening optimism in 2017. According to the Russian Federal Statistics Service, in 2017, manufacturing contributed to RUB 10,635.8 billion of Russia’s total GDP – up from RUB 10.294.1 billion of the total GDP in 2016. Manufacturing was the fourth biggest contributor to the country’s GDP last year, after government, security and taxes; real estate; and trade and maintenance. Russian innovations have also been some of the most groundbreaking in modern history. with key manufacturing breakthroughs leading to solutions that have become an indispensable part of daily life, such as the first electrified tram line, the first quality video- signal recorder, the modern radio, the creation of the worlds first hydroplane, electronic television, transformers – an integral part of peer grids and synthetic rubber – used for everything from vehicle, aircraft, and bicycle tyres to seals, insulation, and medical devices.
Often referred to as the unofficial capital of the Urals – the region, where Russia’s largest metallurgical enterprises are concentrated - Yekaterinburg's plants have, throughout history, been used to build some of the world’s greatest landmarks:
You can learn about the city’s industrial past (and present) on one of many city tours; discover the story behind Yekaterinburg’s first metallurgical plant, built in 1704; and see the legendary Uralmash for yourself. Russia’s third city – 1,036 miles (1,667km) east of the Russian capital – has plenty of culture to offer. It is known for the golden-domed Church on the Blood, built in the early 21st century on the site of the 1918 Romanov executions; the Monument to the Founders by the banks of the Iset River; and the nearby Sverdlovsk Regional Local Lore Museum, where exhibits include the Hall of the Romanovs, with personal items that belonged to Russia’s last royal family.
Village of Shartash, founded by members of the Russian sect of Old Believers.
An ironworks and a fortress was established in the village.
The new settlement was named Yekaterinburg in honour of Catherine I, the wife of Peter I the Great. The town grew as the administrative centre for all the ironworks of the Urals region.
Its importance increased after the Great Siberian Highway was built through it.
The Trans-Siberian Railroad linked the city with Siberia.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Yekaterinburg achieved notoriety as the scene ofthe execution of the last Tsar, Nicholas II, and his family in July 1918.
Six years later, it was renamed Sverdlovsk in honour of the Bolshevik leader Yakov M. Sverdlov.
City was reverted to its original name - Yekaterinburg.
Modern Yekaterinburg is now one of the major industrial centres of Russia, especially for heavy engineering. Engineering products manufactured in the city include metallurgical and chemical machinery, turbines, diesels, and ball bearings.
During the Soviet period, the city was a major centre for biological and chemical warfare research and development, while today it has also diversified into housing a range of light industries, including food processing and a very traditional practice – gem-cutting. The city, laid out on a regular gridiron pattern, sprawls across the valley of the Iset – dammed to form a series of small lakes — and the low surrounding hills. It is an important railway junction, with lines radiating from it to all parts of the Urals and the rest of Russia, and the Urals’ leading cultural centre, with numerous institutions of higher education. According to the Institute of Clod Nicole Ledu, Yekaterinburg’s planning and architectural development puts it among the world’s “12 ideal cities”. The unofficial capital of the Urals seems to have it all: over 600 historical and cultural monuments, 18th- and 19th Century stone and wooden buildings, iconic pieces of constructivist architecture, and the world’s most northerly skyscrapers. A visit there allows you to admire the intricate ornaments of the Sevastyanov house, marvel at the fascinating geometry of the Chekist Town; and take in a panorama of the city from the observation deck, located at the 198m (649ft) high Vysotsky, the tallest building in the Ural-Siberian and Central Asian Regions. Yekaterinburg is home to 60 museums and art galleries, which host some magnificent rarities such as the Kasli iron cast pavilion at the Museum of Fine Arts – the opulently decorated pavilion won the Grand Prix at the Paris Expo 1900. You can explore the literary legacy of the region at the Municipal Museum of Ural Writers, which comprises a theatre and three memorial museums, dedicated to life and work of famous 19th and 20th century Russian writers born in the Urals: Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak, Fyodor Reshetnikov, and Pavel Bazhov. You can also see the region’s wealth at the Ural Mineralogy Museum, holding a unique collection of minerals, and the Museum of Jewelry Art History. Meanwhile, Yekaterinburg is also where the world’s oldest wooden sculpture was discovered – the Big Shigir Idol is 9,500 years-old, which makes it older than Egypt’s pyramids. A bustling business centre, Yekaterinburg is also known for its thriving art scene and is also home to one of the oldest theatres in Russia, and, in total, around 40 active professional theatres – many of which have gained not only local, but international, success. The Ural Mountains are also an unlimited source of outdoor fun. From сountry skiing, horseback riding, paragliding, and hiking trails to canoeing and kayaking, the list of potential activities is endless.